Here is a list primary sources that were created around the same period as the 1898 War political cartoons. Making use of additional primary evidence will help you conduct re-readings of political cartoons and confirm or reassess your initial interpretations of Americans visual depictions of Caribbean landscapes and peoples. The open-access primary sources that will corroborate the meanings behind political cartoons include: newspaper articles, theatrical plays, and books.

Newspaper Articles

“Do We Need Cuba?” (New York Evening Post, March 21st, 1889)

The Evening Post published an editorial approving the anti-imperialist editorial in another newspaper, the Manufacturer of Philadelphia, entitled “Do we Need Cuba?”

“A Vindication to Cuba” (José Martí, Evening Post, March 25th, 1889)

This article is José Martí’s response to the “Do We Need Cuba” editorial piece by the New York Evening Post.

Theatrical Play (change link to new page with transcription)

“Uncle Sam’s New Scholars: A Humorous Sketch in One Scene” (Werner’s Magazine, 1899)

This play was probably written for classroom theatrical productions. It was published in Werner’s Magazine, a publication that catered to speech and theater educators.

Political Cartoon Sites

Cagle Cartoons on Cuban Policy

Donald Trump and Puerto Rico (The Mercury Times)

Christopher Weyant: A care package from the White House (Boston Globe)


Facts and Fakes About Cuba (1897)

Picturesque Cuba, Porto Rico, Hawaii and the Philippines: A Photographic Panorama of Our New Possessions. Church (ed). (1899). Springfield,: Ohio., Mast, Crowell & Kirkpatrick

Nelan, C. (1898). Cartoons of Our War with Spain: From Leading Foreign and American Papers. Belford, Middlebrook & Company.


The White Man’s Burden: The United States and the Philippine Islands. (Kipling, 1899), Originally written to celebrate Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee in 1897, this poem is Kipling’s revised version during the Philippine–American War (1899–1902), in which urges the United States to assume colonial control of the Philippines.